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The most perfect castings for gear wheels and pulleys and other pieces which can be so moulded, are made by drawing the patterns through templates without rapping. These templates are simply plates of metal perforated so that the pattern can be forced through them by screws or levers, leaving the sand intact. Such templates are expensive to begin with, because of the accurate fitting that is required, especially around the teeth of wheels, and the mechanism that is required in drawing the patterns, but when a large number of pieces are to be made from one pattern, such as gear wheels and pulleys, the saving of labour will soon pay for the templates and machinery required, to say nothing of the saving of metal, which often amounts to ten per cent., and the increased value of the castings because of their accuracy.

It is well for an apprentice to invent or demonstrate all that he can鈥攖he more the better; but as explained in a previous place, what is attempted should be according to some system, and with a proper object. Time spent groping in the dark after something of which no definite conception has been formed, or for any object not to fill an ascertained want, is generally time lost. To demonstrate or invent, one should begin methodically, like a bricklayer builds a wall, as he mortars and sets each brick, so should an engineer qualify, by careful study, each piece or movement that is added to a mechanical structure, so that when done, the result may be useful and enduring..
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Finishing as a process is a secondary and not always an essential one; many parts of machinery are ready for use when forged or cast and do not require fitting; yet a finishing shop must in many respects be considered the leading department of an engineering establishment. Plans, drawings and estimates are always based on finished work, and when the parts have accurate dimensions; hence designs, drawings and estimates may be said to pass through the fitting shop and follow back to the foundry and smith shop, so that finishing, although the last process in the order of the work, is the first one after the drawings in every other sense; even the dimensions in pattern-making which seems farthest removed from finishing, are based upon fitting dimensions, and to a great extent must be modified [119]by the conditions of finishing..
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In the manufacture of machines, there are usually so many sizes and modifications, that drawings should assist and determine in a large degree the completeness of classification and record. Taking the manufacture of machine tools, for example: we cannot well say, each time they are to be spoken of, a thirty-six inch lathe without screw and gearing, a thirty-two inch lathe with screw and gearing, a forty-inch lathe triple geared or double geared, with a twenty or thirty foot frame, and so on. To avoid this it is necessary to assume symbols for machines of different classes, consisting generally of the letters of the alphabet, qualified by a single number as an exponent to designate capacity or different modifications. Assuming, in the case of engine lathes, A to be the symbol for lathes of all sizes, then those of different capacity and modification can be represented in the drawings and records as A1, A2, A3, A4, and so on, requiring but two characters to indicate a lathe of any kind. These symbols should be marked in large plain letters on the left-hand lower corner of sheets, so that the manager, workman, or any one else, can see at a glance what the [86] drawings relate to. This symbol should run through the time-book, cost account, sales record, and be the technical name for machines to which it applies; in this way machines will always be spoken of in the works by the name of their symbol..

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Every one remembers the classification of water-wheels met with in the older school-books on natural philosophy, where we are informed that there are three kinds of wheels, as there were "three kinds of levers"鈥攏amely, overshot, undershot, and breast wheels鈥攚ith a brief notice of Barker's mill, which ran apparently without any sufficient cause for doing so. Without finding fault with the plan of describing water-power commonly adopted in elementary books, farther than to say that some explanation of the principles by which power is derived from the water would have been more useful, I will venture upon a different classification of water-wheels, more in accord with modern practice, but without reference to the special mechanism of the different wheels, except when unavoidable. Water-wheels can be divided into four general types.
The term application has been selected as a proper one to distinguish machines that expend and apply power, from those that are employed in generating or transmitting power. Machines of application employed in manufacturing, and which expend their action on material, are directed to certain operations which are usually spoken of as processes, such as cutting, compressing, grinding, separating, and disintegrating.
21 August, 2019 - 13:08
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21 August, 2019 - 13:08
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